A deaerator is a device that is widely used for the removal of oxygen and other dissolved gases from the feed water to steam-generating boilers. In particular, dissolved oxygen in boiler feed waters will cause serious corrosion damage in steam systems by attaching to the walls of metal piping and other metallic equipment and forming oxides (rust). Dissolved carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid that causes further corrosion. Most deaerators are designed to remove oxygen down to levels of 7 ppb by weight (0.005 cm³/L) or less as well as essentially eliminating carbon dioxide.
Deaerator Working Principle
In the Boiler deaerator Working Principle Water is heated close to saturation temperature with a minimum pressure drop and minimum vent. This ensures the best thermal operating efficiency. Deaeration is done by spraying the boiler feed water over multiple layers of trays designed to provide large contact area of the liquid surface to Pegging steam. This scrubbing steam is fed from the bottom of the deaerator when it contacts with BFW, it heated up to saturation temperature dissolved corrosive Gases released from feed water with some vapors from the vent valve. Then treated water falls to the storage tank below the deaerator.
The typical tray-type deaerator in Figure 1 has a vertical domed deaeration section mounted above a horizontal boiler feedwater storage vessel. Boiler feedwater enters the vertical deaeration section above the perforated trays and flows downward through the perforations. Low-pressure deaeration steam enters below the perforated trays and flows upward through the perforations. Some designs use various types of packed bed, rather than perforated trays, to provide good contact and mixing between the steam and the boiler feed water.
The steam strips the dissolved gas from the boiler feedwater and exits via the vent valve at the top of the domed section. Should this vent valve not be opened sufficiently the deaerator will not work properly, causing high oxygen content in the feed water going to the boilers. Should the boiler not have an oxygen-content analyser, a high level in the boiler chlorides may indicate the vent valve not being far enough open. Some designs may include a vent condenser to trap and recover any water entrained in the vented gas. The vent line usually includes a valve and just enough steam is allowed to escape with the vented gases to provide a small visible telltale plume of steam.
The deaerated water flows down into the horizontal storage vessel from where it is pumped to the steam generating boiler system. Low-pressure heating steam, which enters the horizontal vessel through a sparger pipe in the bottom of the vessel, is provided to keep the stored boiler feedwater warm. External insulation of the vessel is typically provided to minimize heat loss.
As shown in Figure 2, the typical spray-type deaerator is a horizontal vessel which has a preheating section (E) and a deaeration section (F). The two sections are separated by a baffle (C). Low-pressure steam enters the vessel through a sparger in the bottom of the vessel.
The boiler feedwater is sprayed into section (E) where it is preheated by the rising steam from the sparger. The purpose of the feedwater spray nozzle (A) and the preheat section is to heat the boiler feedwater to its saturation temperature to facilitate stripping out the dissolved gases in the following deaeration section.
The preheated feedwater then flows into the deaeration section (F), where it is deaerated by the steam rising from the sparger system. The gases stripped out of the water exit via the vent at the top of the vessel. Again, some designs may include a vent condenser to trap and recover any water entrained in the vented gas. Also again, the vent line usually includes a valve and just enough steam is allowed to escape with the vented gases to provide a small and visible telltale plume of steam.
The deaerated boiler feedwater is pumped from the bottom of the vessel to the steam generating boiler system.